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仿古青磚古建門(二)
發布日期:2018-08-31

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万丰国际赌场 門頭.門臉門頭,門臉實際上就是在門的兩側和門的止方進行裝扮。如同人在自己的臉上和頭上進行化妝,包括戴漂亮的各式帽子一樣。

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門上附加裝飾只要我們到農村云走一走,看一看,就可以發現幾乎家家戶戶住宅的門上卻貼著門神,對聯,有的還畫著八卦圖,懸掛著照妖鏡、鐵叉、五色布,還有元寶、香插等等。
一、門神門神就是守衛大門的神靈。主要為了防范"鬼魂"的侵入。原始人類的生產和生活水平都十分低下,人們對大自然的種種現象缺乏認識。風雨雷電對人類造成的危害,蛇蟲猛獸對人身的侵襲都無法抵御,于是人們將一切天災人禍,一切在人間發生的壞事,怪事都視作天地中有一種鬼妖在在作怪。由此,一方面產生了原始的自然崇拜,演變出對天地,日月、山川等的祭祀一方面積極尋求降妖伏怪,驅鬼鎮邪的種種辦法。人類自從脫離了構木為巢和穴居,住房四周有墻垣包圍并有了專用的門作為出入口。這門供人出入,又要防止鬼妖進入,最好的辦法自然就是能請到一位神靈站在大門口,站在門口的神靈即為門神。門神的起源很早。東漢時期王充在《論衡?訂鬼篇》中引了一段《山海經》的話:"滄海之中,有度朔之山,上有大桃木,其屈蟠三千里,其枝間東北日鬼門,萬鬼所出之也。上有二神人,一曰神荼,一曰郁壘,主閱領萬鬼。惡害之鬼,執以葦索,而以食虎。"古人傳說:鬼只能在夜間到人世間活動,天亮之前必須回鬼域,所以黃帝在度朔山上特設了一道鬼門關,派了神荼和郁壘二位神人去把守,察看眾鬼,一旦發現在人間作了惡事的鬼,則用蘆葦制成的繩索捆綁,扔到桃樹下去喂老虎。然而,神荼、郁壘就成了第一代門神。神話要體現在人間的大門上,還必須要將神話形象化,于是人們開始用桃木雕刻成神荼,有壘二神的模樣在年節日懸掛在大門上以驅鬼妖。后來為了省事,在桃木上畫神像,最后,只寫上神荼,郁壘的名字,代替畫象,左右對稱也掛在門上,逐漸成了鎮妖驅鬼的一種符號,故稱為"桃符",也有將老虎當作門神,畫在門上,稱為虎門。隨著歷史的發展,門神的人物與形象也起了變化,在唐朝,唐大宗時期出現,大將軍秦瓊與尉遲恭,唐玄宗夢見鐘馗打鬼等在民間除這幾位門神外,各地來用的還有漢朝的肖何與韓信,三國時期的趙云與馬超,唐朝的魏征、宋朝的岳飛等。后來神像簡化為一個大"福"字,將電倒貼在門上以示"福到"之意。和合二仙象征著一家夫妻的和睦、幸福,所以常與喜神相配貼在門上。后來門神從武將發展到文官,武將是為了驅鬼鎮邪,文官是為了祈福盼喜、歷史發展到20世紀,物質文明,精神文明獲得巨大的進步,但是門神,還作為一種文化現象,至今仍經久不衰。

万丰国际赌场ER、DUILIANFANGWUDAMENSHANGCHULEMENSHENYIWAI,ZUIBUNENGQUESHAODEJIUSHIDUILIAN,YINWEIMEINIANCHUNJIEDOUYAOZAIDAMENSHANGTIEXINDEDUILIAN,SUOYIYOUCHENGWEI"CHUNLIAN"HUO"MENLIAN"。JULISHIXUEJIAKAOJU,ZAITANGDAIJIUYOULEDUILIAN,WUYUCHENGXIANSHENGZAITADEZHUANZHU《ZHONGGUODEMENWENHUA》LIYINYONGYUANDAIZAJU《HOUTINGHUA》,SHUOMINGLEDUILIANDENGSHANGFANGWUDAMENERCHENGWEIMENLIANDESHISHI。MENLIANDECHANGCHUSHINENGGOUYONGJIANJIEDEWENZIJIANGFANGWUZHURENDELIXIANG、YUANWANGHEZHUIQIUBIAOXIANCHULAI,YANJIANERYIGAI。"QINGSHANBUMOQIANQIUHUA,LVSHUIWUXIANWANGUQIN"XIANGUANCHUNSHUIXINWULV,ZUOTINGSONGTAOQIZIHAO"DENGWEIWENRENZHUZHAIMENSHANGDEDUILIAN,MIAOHUICHUZHURENDUIZHUZHAIHUANJINGDEZHUIQIUYUXINJING。"DUKERONGSHENGENGKEFU,QINNENGCHUANGYEJIANNENGYING";"SANXINGGAOZHAOPINGANZHAI,WUFUXINGLINKANGDONGJIA",ZHEFANYINGLEDADUOSHUDEBAIXINGDUIGENGDUDEXIANGWANGHESHENGHUODELIXIANG,ZUOSHENGYIDERENJIAZEZAIMENSHANGDUOTIE"HUNADONGXINANBEICAI,MENYINGCHUNXIAQIUDONGFU",DENGWENLEIMENLIAN。MENLIANDOUSHIZAIHONGZHISHANGYONGHEIMOSHUXIE,XIANDEXIQI。DANGJIALIYOULAOBEIRENQUSHISHI,CHULEZAIBANSANGSHIDEJITIANWANQUANYONGBAIZHIXIEWANLIANTIEZAIMENSHANGYIWAI,SANGSHIHOUDEYINIANNEI,DAMENSHANGJUNTIELANSEMENLIAN,DIER,SANNIANHUANLVSEDENEIRONGYEXIANGYINGDIBIANHUA。RU"SHOUXIAONANHUIJIAJIELI,SIQINRENGHESHENGSHISUO","SIQINLAJINRENBUJIN,WANGMUCHUNGUIRENBUGUI"DENG。MENLIANTIEZAIMENBANSHANG,ZUOYOUGEYIYOUSHIZAIKAOJINMENZHONGFENGDEWEIZHIHUANJIATIEYIFUXIAODUILIAN。YOUDE,CHUDUILIANWAI,HUANZAIMENDEHENGFANGSHANGTIEYIHENGPI,YISHIXINCHUNZHIJIGENGXIANXIQI。

三、門上祈福物在遼南地區一些農村里,還可以見到家家戶戶門上都貼著一對元寶,旁邊則飾以香插。元寶的原型是古時的金元寶,是貴重的財物。這里門上的元寶是用紙做成元寶形,講究的是用金紙或銀紙,上面再貼上有喜鵲等吉祥物的紅色剪紙般的是用紅紙做底,上面貼黃色剪紙。元寶貼在門上是為了接財納福,在元寶上面還插上幾枝柏樹枝,無論從色彩、造型和象征意義上都增加了吉祥的內容,香插多用竹筒做成,外面包一層紅紙;也有用硬紙卷成的,供節日插香之用。點燭燒香是祭祖、拜神靈不可缺少的內容。門上幾枝香,輕煙繚繞,確能表達出住屋一家人的虔誠之心。
万丰国际赌场 四、門上辟邪物辟邪此起祈福好像從來都顯得重要。門上的辟邪裝飾也比祈福的裝飾多。常見的有以下幾種。

1、照妖鏡鏡子在我國出現很早,現在已知出土的銅鏡有早在四千年以前的秦漢時期的銅鏡,做工已很精致,圓形鏡周邊還有饕餮等怪獸紋。鏡上用饕餮紋,使銅鏡帶上了幾分神秘色彩。傳說古代道家進山修煉,在背后掛一直徑為九寸的圓鏡,就能夠使鬼魅現出原形。鬼魅要害人,多以善像出現,但對著鏡子一照卻顯出猙獰的原形,嚇得急忙逃去。鏡子成了照妖鏡,自此名揚天下,世人多用一面圓鏡懸掛在大門上方以起照妖驅鬼之用。
2、吞口吞口是一種木雕的獸頭,掛在門的上方中央位置,也起辟邪的作用,多在江南及西南彝族、水族等少數民族地區。其獸頭多為虎頭形,張著大嘴,圓睜雙眼;露出一副兇狠相。虎早為度朔山上把守鬼門關的鎮邪猛獸,自然有驅邪作用,但各地的吞口并不都是虎頭而呈現出多種獸面,都是鼓著雙眼,張著口,還露出兩只繚牙,面目可憎。吞口也起驅鬼作用,以惡制惡,以怪驅怪。

3、BAGUATUYUTIECHABAGUATUBENZUOBUSHIYONG,KEXUANZEZHAIDIZHIFENGSHUI,YUCERENZHIJIXIONG,RUJINJIANGTAHUAZAIMENSHANG,,YESHIYONGZUOPIXIE。ZHUANGZAIMENSHANGDETIECHAQIANYOUJIANZHUA,ZIRANKEYONGYICHASHAGUIHUN,ZHESHIZUIZHIJIEDEQUYAOWUQI。

万丰国际赌场WU、MENSHANGYINGSHIZHUANGSHIGUSHIZICHUNJIEKAISHI,YINIANYOUERSHISIGEJIEQI,MINJIANYEDOUYOUYUJIEQIXIANGGUANDEMINSU,ZHEZHONGMINSUYECHANGYIXINGXIANGDESHOUDUANBIAOXIANZAIJIANZHUDEMENSHANG,LIRU:QINGMINGJIEMENSHANGCHALIU,QIHANYI,YOUYANCHALIUSHIWEILEPIXIE;YOUYANCHALIUKEYI"MINGYAN"DENG。WUYUEWURIDUANWUJIE,ZAIMENSHANGXUANGUAAIXIE,DUANWUJIEZAIGUSHIWENRENWEISHIYINIANZHONGYANGQIZUISHENGDERIZI,DUANWUWEIZHONGWU,HUOWANGZHIXIANG,HUOWANGZESHENGDU,YIFABINGYI。ERAIXIEZHENGYOUFANGYIZUOYONG,JIANGAIXIERANZHUSHENGHUOYINNENGXUNSHAWENCHONGDENGZUOYONG。SUOYIMENSHANGGUAAIZIRANJUYOUQUXIEQUZAIDEZUOYONG。HUANYOUBUSHAODIFANGJIANGAIXIEBIANZUOHUXING,CHENG"AIHU",ZHEYANGYOUZENGTIANLEZHENXIEDEXIANGZHENGYIYI。QIUSHOUSHIJIE,ZAIMENSHANGXUANGUADAOSUI,YIXIANGZHENGZHUFENGNIANDENG。

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万丰国际赌场   WOMENDECHANPINSUIRANSHISHUYUJIANZHUCAILIAOLEIXING,DANSHIWOMENDEWENHUAGUANQUESHIQUANJUXINGDEZHENGTIFANGWU JIANZHUSIXIANGTIXI。HUIFUHECHUANCHENGZHONGSHIJIANZHUZHENGTONG,ZUIZHUYAODETEZHENGSHI,JIANZHUBIXUSHIYONGYUCHUANTONGWEN HUAYIMOXIANGCHENGDEJIANZHUCAILIAOHEZHUANGSHIPEIJIAN。WOMENDECHANPIN,FANGGUZHUAN、GEZHONGWA、GOUTOU、HUABIANDI SHUI、PINGPANYAN、MA、LONG、FENG、SHI、YU、WENDENGDOUSHICONGCHUANTONGZHONGWAJUECHULAI,DAIZHULISHIQIYUN、MIN ZUJINGSHENNEIHE、BINGDAIYOUXIANDAIKEJIYUANSU,XINGCHENGXILIEFANGGUCHANPIN,JINRUZHONGSHIJIANZHUSHICHANG。

万丰国际赌场      WENWUZHE,NAIWENHUAWUZHENGYE。JIANZHU,SHIYIGEMINZULISHICHENDIANDEZUIKEXINDEWENHUAWUZHENG。WOMEN CHANGDAOZHONGGUORENZHUZIJIDEFANGZI,WOMENDEWENHUALINIANSHI"JIEXUZHONGSHIJIANZHUXIANGHUO,CHUANCHENGZHONGSHIJIANZHUWEN HUA,HUIFUZHONGSHIJIANZHUZHENGTONG,SHOUHULISHIWENHUAZUNYAN”。

万丰国际赌场GUANJIANCI:FANGGUQINGZHUAN,FANGGUQINGZHUANCHANG,QINGWAPIFA,QINGZHUANQINGWAJIAGE,LUOYANGPUDIZHUAN

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